The subjects of the study, who were by then attending the Intensive English Language Institutes (IELI) at the University of Texas at Arlington and University of North Texas, belong to four Arab countries and, thus, they represent different dialect, educational and socioeconomic backgrounds.
Irrespective of the variations attributed to the dialect differences, which are beyond the scope of the present paper, findings have shown that: (i) intralingual errors are the most commonly occurring types, (ii) lexico-semantic errors, which are mainly interlingual, contribute substantially to the grand percentage of errors, representing (39.22%) of all linguistic errors, and (iii) the majority of errors affect only one item in the utterance, and thus, they never lead to miscommunication between the sender and the receiver.
He rarely has a pen, pencil, chisel, stylus, stick, paint brush, or instrument to record his observations.
An anthropologist comes out to Indian reservations to make OBSERVATIONS.
The slogans become conference themes in the early spring, when the anthropologist expeditions are being planned.
The slogans turn into battle cries of opposing groups of anthropologists who chance to meet on the reservations the following summer.The reports are spread all around the government agencies and foundations all winter.The only problem is that no one has time to read them.I've spent a great deal of time on reservations; I've talked to lots of people; I've read (and written) many books.Something was told to me by an Australian Aboriginal elder, but I think it's applicable to me and my knowledge of American Indians as well.Each summer there is a new battle cry, which inspires new insights into the nature of the "Indian problem." One summer Indians will be greeted with the joyful cry of ,"Indians are bilingual!" The following summer this great truth will be expanded to "Indians are not only bilingual, THEY ARE BICULTURAL!He has challenged a number of ideas about Indian people held by the dominant society. Some people have bad horoscopes, others take tips on the stock market. Indeed the Oregon Trail was never so heavily populated as are Route 66 and Highway 18 in the summer time.From every rock and cranny in the East they emerge, as if responding to some primeval fertility rite, and flock to the reservations."They" are the anthropologists.They are the most prominent members of the scbolarly community that infests the land of the free, and in the summer time, the homes of the braves.The origin of the anthropologist is a mystery hidden in the historical mists.