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Direct quotations should be clearly marked and reproduce sources with precision.In all cases, it should be obvious which ideas and data are your own and which have been borrowed from other researchers.
This involves determining what the key points of a publication are in relation to your topic and using your own words to tell your readers about them briefly, but also clearly, comprehensively and objectively.
• Use quotation marks to enclose any passages that you directly quote from a source, or, if the passage is long, set it off in a block or displayed quotation format.
• Record the bibliographical information for every source you consult.
Be accurate and thorough, and ensure that this information appears along with your notes on each source.
Students guilty of plagiarism can earn failing grades or complete expulsion from a course, degree programme or university, while researchers accused of misconduct can face article retractions and lose employment, research funding, intellectual reputation and professional status.
Either way, the destruction of a valuable and rewarding career is often the result.• Never take the research paper or data of another author either in whole or in part and attempt to submit it for publication or grading as your own original work.Having someone else ghostwrite any part of a research paper for you to submit is also unethical.In short, plagiarising is using in one’s own work the ideas, thoughts, words, data, theories, images, sounds or other creations of an author, speaker or artist without properly acknowledging the source.The wide variety of research materials now available on the internet may make plagiarism extremely easy, but the consequences of plagiarism in the research-based writing submitted for educational credit, scholarly publication or other professional purposes can be catastrophic.• Read the sources you intend to use in a research paper carefully and repeatedly to ensure that you understand the meaning.Only if you thoroughly understand the research you are reading will you be able to use it to support your own work in an effective scholarly manner.Citation software may prove helpful for organising and managing this information.• Consult several sources on a topic to obtain a wider perspective and develop your own thoughts and conclusions.Although intentional plagiarism may seem worse in an ethical sense than unintentional plagiarism, the fact is that both kinds of plagiarism can produce equally unpleasant results and must be strictly avoided when writing research papers.The following tips are designed to help researchers produce academic or scientific writing without slipping into the suspect realms of plagiarism.