The proposed transitions utilize trapezoidal- and butterfly-shaped mi-crostrip patches at the top and bottom layers.
The broadside coupling between microstrip-coupled patches is achieved by cutting a rectangular-shaped slot in the mid-layer ground plane.
The design of such antennas is a multiobjective engineering problem with opposite goals, where a tradeoff between bandwidth and gain needs to be found.
One kind of antenna widely used in GPR applications is the solid bow-tie antennas [4, 8] being simple to design and having ultrawideband impedance properties.
The ultrawideband performance with respect to antenna impedance and gain is achieved by an optimized resistive loading profile and flare angle.
A low-cost prototype is manufactured and numerical simulations are validated with measurements.This thesis is primarily focused on designing UWB antenna elements and other microwave components for UWB wireless communications applications.The thesis starts with designing and implementing different new UWB disc monopole and hybrid anten-nas with discussions covering their operation, electrical behavior and performance.A four patch antenna array is connected to these ma-trices to form multiple beamforming array systems.Simulations are carried out on these beamforming systems and the obtained radiation characteristics are also presented and discussed.Finally, two compact and inexpensive multiple beamforming network (M-BFN) prototypes are developed.The developed microwave components using multi-layer mi-crostrip PCB technology are used to design 4 × 4 Butler matrices. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.A multiobjective genetic algorithm has been applied to design a new printed, bow-tie antenna for ultrawideband applications, that is, ground penetrating radar, short range and high data rate communications, and so forth.There, the current pulse that propagates along the antenna structure, is partially reflected, constituting secondary radiating sources .Therefore, the time-domain antenna response can be divided into two parts: the main pulse and the ringing region.