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Opportunities for women’s education and for participation in politics increased.
In that year, Mongol nationalists, with the help of the Soviet Union, gained power and began to set up a socialist regime, which lasted for about seventy years.
Attempted collectivization of the herds, dictatorial rule, purges of Buddhist monks and others considered to be dissidents, severe limitations on all forms of literary, artistic, and political expressions, and deprivation due to some economic mismanagement followed.
Welfare benefits, such as pensions for the elderly and subsistence payments for widows and the disabled, also assisted women because they were often responsible for these groups.
Moreover, in the rural areas, women herders were eligible for pensions, a unique policy in Asia.
Mongol women enjoyed, or some would say endured, a vital role in the often times harsh nomadic life.
In recent decades, women saw greater equality in education and the workplace.A multi-party political system and more outlets for dissent have expanded their political choices.On the other hand, economic failures have fallen disproportionately on women.The capriciousness of the Mongol environment and the demanding lifestyle of the steppe pastoral nomads necessitated hard work and assumption of responsibilities by all household members, and women often had the heavier loads.They not only had domestic duties but also assisted in tending animals, milking sheep and goats, producing dairy products, shearing wool, and tanning hides.As Mongolia continues to shape its identity in the modern world, this essay examines some of the issues and opportunities facing women today.Because women in pre-twentieth-century Mongolia assumed such vital roles in the livestock economy, a few among the elite enjoyed more rights and privileges than their counterparts in other East Asian lands.It is no wonder that some achieved prominence beyond Mongolia.For example, the Persian historian Rashid al-Din wrote that Khubilai Khan’s mother Sorghaghtani Beki was “extremely intelligent and able and towered above all the women in the world.” She, together with Khubilai’s wife Chabi, exerted considerable influence on the policies the Mongols pursued.To be sure, the period of socialist governance also witnessed gains, particularly in education, health, and social welfare.Women often benefited from government policies, which in theory guaranteed equality in education, the workplace, and the political system.