Foremost, black Members of Congress were too scarce to form a voting bloc powerful enough to change how the institution worked.Until the fall 1964 elections, there were only five African Americans in Congress: Dawson, Powell, Diggs, Nix, and Hawkins.The alliance of conservative southern Democrats and Republicans in Congress who successfully blocked many of Truman’s initiatives is portrayed by the worm labeled “Coalition.” During the 1940s and 1950s, executive action, rather than legislative initiatives, set the pace for measured movement toward desegregation. Truman “expanded on Roosevelt’s tentative steps toward racial moderation and reconciliation,” wrote one historian of the era.
Transitional devices are like bridges between parts of your paper.
They are cues that help the reader to interpret ideas a paper develops.
There are several types of transitional devices, and each category leads readers to make certain connections or assumptions.
Some lead readers forward and imply the building of an idea or thought, while others make readers compare ideas or draw conclusions from the preceding thoughts.
In 1948 President Truman signed Executive Order 9981, desegregating the military.
The backlash to Truman’s civil rights policies contributed to the unraveling of the solid Democratic South.
Vice President Hubert Humphrey administers the Oath of Office, while Senators Mike Mansfield of Montana, Everett Dirksen of Illinois, and Edward M. The federal courts also carved out a judicial beachhead for civil rights activists. Board of Education, a case that tested the segregation of school facilities in Topeka, Kansas.
Brown sparked a revolution in civil rights with its plainspoken ruling that separate was inherently unequal.
Significantly, the committee’s October 1947 report, “To Secure These Rights,” provided civil rights proponents in Congress with a legislative blueprint for much of the next two decades.
Among its recommendations were the creation of a permanent FEPC, the establishment of a permanent Civil Rights Commission, the creation of a civil rights division in the U. Department of Justice, and the enforcement of federal anti-lynching laws and desegregation in interstate transportation.