They are finding that many of their students are having success and can lay out a claim and provide evidence to support it, but teachers are still finding that the arguments are choppy and read like lists. When we look at their writing together, it's lacking the "usual suspect": an effective warrant.In an argument, the warrant explains how the evidence supports the claim and often applies a commonly accepted rule or principle. For others, it is the "Mean" in a "Tell- Show-Mean" structure.For example, we can diagnose an illness or disease by its symptoms.
A statement of how your evidence logically and justifiably supports your claim.
Warrants are often left unstated and commonly take one of the following six forms: Warrant Based Generalization: What is true of the sample is likely true of the whole.
Warrant Based on Analogy: What is true of one situation is likely true of another, so long as they share key characteristics.
Warrant Based on Sign: One thing indicates the presence or outcome of something else.
Backing for Warrant 1: Studies show a high correlation between sugary drinks and obesity rates.
Backing for Warrant 2: Schools try to provide for the well-being of students in many other ways, such as campus security and counseling for behavioral and mental health.For instance, historians often warrant claims by corroborating them with primary sources.Scientists may warrant claims by citing a law or principle, such as the law of conservation of matter.I hope my previous blog convinced you that teaching argument writing should be your number one priority.Recently, I've talked to teachers whose students are practicing more argument writing.Rebuttal: Banning soda from school campuses won’t prevent students from drinking it at home.Qualifier: Even though students would still have access to soda before and after school, banning soda from school campuses would reduce their overall consumption, which is an important contribution toward protecting their health and well-being. However, good academic writing often makes the reasoning connecting claims and evidence explicit, since that is the first place an educated reader looks to pick apart an argument. Probable Cause Warrants in academic writing involve logic, but not the formal logic Aristotle made famous, where an absolutely true conclusion is derived from absolutely true premises.Instead, academic writing often applies "probabilistic" logic, warranting claims that are likely, but not absolutely, true. Multiple Identities The nature of the warrant differs depending on the discipline.Warrants can be questioned, which is why they often require backing. It might take the form of a well-reasoned argument (or sub-argument) that directly strengthens the warrant.So for example, let’s say your argument depends on a warrant of causality. This may also include your response to the counterargument. Your argument may state that something is true 100 percent of the time, most of the time, or just some of the time.